Patent No. 452,989, “Method of Constructing Levees” (1891) Patent No. 700,076: Bioengineered Levee Walls Although the field of bioengineering did not emerge as such until the 1970s, designers and builders have long explored ways of integrating living organisms in engineered structures. The raw material of rivers — soil, sediment, slope, stone, water, and plants — provides an especially rich palette for landscape design. Levee patents in the late 19th and early 20th century disclose various techniques that would today be considered bioengineering. The simplest utilize fascines and live plants to create enclosures for sediment capture, or weave vegetated armoring for levees in a manner similar to plashing (a technique of hedge construction used in the Midwest as an alternative to barbed wire). Others make highly speculative and radical claims for construction that integrates living plants into levees systems, blurring the lines between cultivation and construction.
Sites at Stave Hill Ecological Park, Rotherhithe; End of the World Garden, Cornwall; South Walney Island, Cumbria; Bridport, Devon and others in the UK and around the world will be joined by the Reveil radio broadcast, which circles the earth at sunrise on a network of live audio streams.
From Sept. 29 through Oct. 1st, Dr. Jackie Fay will be attending the tenth Medieval Writers' Workshop at Stanford University. Invitations are limited to approximately ten participants, and the event is meant to showcase these Medievalists' ongoing research.
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There is no formal treatment of justice in the RB. Nevertheless, the practice of justice is pervasive in the Rule's articulation of how to make community life work, and of how to create an environment where each member is treated fairly. In most instances, leaders such as the abbot (prioress) or the cellarer are charged with ensuring just conditions for community members. For example, Benedict instructs the abbot to avoid all favoritism in his relationship with community members, and he is not to give a freeman a higher rank than someone who was a slave (RB 2:16, 18). The abbot is to show equal love to everyone (RB 2:22). In the context of discussing community rank, Benedict admonishes the abbot to avoid thinking that he can do anything he wants, and reminds him that he will be ultimately accountable to God for what he does (RB 63:2). In a striking passage, the abbot is told that "he should realize that he has undertaken the care of the sick, not tyranny over the healthy" (RB 27:6). There is to be peace in the monastery because procedures and practices minimize the potential for grumbling and murmuring. Thus, in the chapter on setting the time for the daily meals, Benedict advises the abbot to "regulate and arrange all matters that souls may be saved and the brothers may go about their activities without justifiable grumbling" (RB 41:5).
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